The kit is proven to detect a wide range of Flavivirus antibodies (WNV, JEV, TBEV, JEV, USUV, ZIKAV, and DENV) in multiple species, including humans (see References). For research use only on human samples: contact us.
- Highly sensitive and specific detection of Flavivirus antibodies (WNV, JEV, TBEV, JEV, USUV, ZIKAV, and DENV)
- Applicable to multiple species, including horses, birds and others. For research use only on human samples (see References).
- Rapid and convenient protocol, with ready-to-use reagents and results in just over 2 hours
- For avian species, validated for use with Serum Transport Cards, allowing for practical and safe shipment of blood or serum samples to the lab
Method :Competitive ELISA
Species :Multiple species, including birds, horses and others. For research use only on human samples (see References)
Specimens :Serum or plasma
Coated antigen :pr-E antigen
Conjugate :Anti-pr-E-HRP conjugate (concentrated 10X)
Download a summary of the publications below here
1) Molini U. et al. (2022). Neutralising antibodies to West Nile virus detected in horses in Windhoek, Namibia. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 93(1), 1-3.
2) Molini U. et al. (2021). West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in a Selected Donkey Population of Namibia.Front. Vet. Sci. 8:681354.
3) Selim A. et al. (2020). Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of West Nile Virus in Egypt. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious diseases 71, 101473.
4) Monaco F. et al. (2019). Immunological response in horses following West Nile virus vaccination with inactivated or recombinant vaccines. Veterinaria Italiana 55 (1), 73-79.
5) Benjelloun A. et al. (2017). Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in horses in different Moroccan regions. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 3, 198–207.
6) Haroun M. et al. (2017). Occurrence of Equine West Nile Virus Among Horses in Qatar : A Preliminary Investigation. European Scientific Journal January 2017 /SPECIAL/ edition ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e – ISSN 1857- 7431
7) Joó K. et al. (2017). Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in equine serum after natural infection or vaccination. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 183, 1–6.
8) Mehmet K. et al. (2017). Serological investigation of West Nile virus infection in domestic horses and donkeys in Turkey. Pak Vet J, 37(1): 51-54.
9) Bahuon C. et al. (2016). West Nile virus epizootics in the Camargue (France) in 2015 and reinforcement of surveillance and control networks. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 35 (3), 811-824.
10) Bouzalas I.et al. (2016). Emergence of Equine West Nile Encephalitis in Central Macedonia, Greece, 2010. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 63(6):e219-e227.
11) Chaintoutis S. et al. (2015). Evaluation of cross-protection of a lineage 1 West Nile virus inactivated vaccine against natural infections from a virulent lineage 2 strain in horses, under field conditions. Clin Vaccine Immunol 22:1040 –1049.
12) Zohaib A. et al. (2014). High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan. Epidemiol. Infect., Page 1 of 5.
13) Barbić L. et al. (2013). West Nile virus serosurveillance in horses in Croatia during the 2012 transmission season. Medical Sciences, 39 (2013): 95-104.
14) Bargaoui R. et al.(2013). Mapping the Serological Prevalence Rate of West Nile Fever in Equids, Tunisia. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62(1), 55–66.
16) Borujeni P. et al. (2013). A serological survey on antibodies against West Nile virus in horses of Khuzestan province. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine IJVM 7(3):185-191.
17) Jonquiere F. et al. (2011). West Nile Virus Vaccination in Horses –IgM and IgG responses after injection in different muscles. Pferdeheilkunde 27 ,4 (July/August) 412-416.
17) Reemtsma H. et al. (2022). Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Domestic Geese after Experimental Infection. Viruses, 14(6), 1319.
18) Talukdar A. et al. (2022). Sero-prevalence of West Nile virus in urban and peri-urban poultry farms of Guwahati, India. Frontiers in Tropical Diseases, 3, 792857.
19) Pallari C.T. et al. (2021). Evidence of West Nile Virus seropositivity in wild birds on the island of Cyprus. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 74, 101592.
20) Holicki C.M. et al. (2020). Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus Lineage 1 to German Poultry. Vaccines 8, 507.
21) Islam A. et al. (2020). Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Bangladesh. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 164.
22) Ain-Najwaa M.Y. et al. (2020). Evidence of West Nile virus infection in migratory and resident wild birds in west coast of peninsular Malaysia. One Health 10, 100134.
23) Kim C-Y. et al. (2016). First detection of West Nile virus in domestic pigeon in Korea. J Vet Sci, 17(4), 587-589.
24) Pastiu A. et al. (2016). Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 16(3), 176-180.
25) Hammouda A. et al. (2015). Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia. Epidemiol. Infect., 143, 3546–3549.
26) Chaintoutis S. et al. (2014). Evaluation of a West Nile virus surveillance and early warning system in Greece, based on domestic pigeons. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 37, 131– 141.
27) Chaskopoulou A. et al. (2013). Detection and Early Warning of West Nile Virus Circulation in Central Macedonia, Greece, Using Sentinel Chickens and Mosquitoes. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 13(10):723-32.
28) Ziegler et al. (2013). Pathogenesis of West Nile virus lineage 1 and 2 in experimentally infected large falcons. Veterinary microbiology, 161(3-4), 263-273.
29) Sotelo E. et al. (2011). Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge. Veterinary Research 42:11.
AVIAN AND HORSES
30) Raleigh P. et al. (2012). Surveillance for antibodies to West Nile virus in Ireland. Veterinary Record 170: 180.
31) Molini U. et al. (2023). Low Seroprevalence of WNV in Namibian Dogs Suggests a Limited Effectiveness as Sentinels for Infection Monitoring. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 8(4), 203.
32) Cosseddu G.M. et al. (2021). Sero-surveillance of emerging viral diseases in camels and cattle in Nouakchott, Mauritania: an abattoir study. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 53(2), 1-6.
33) Mohammed M.N. et al. (2021). Serological evidence of West Nile viral infection in archived swine serum samples from Peninsular Malaysia. J Vet Sci.22(3):e29.
34) Pham-Thanh L. et al. (2021). Dogs as Sentinels for Flavivirus Exposure in Urban, Peri-Urban and Rural Hanoi, Vietnam. Viruses 13, 507.
35) Ain-Najwa M.Y. et al. (2020). Exposure to Zoonotic West Nile Virus in Long-Tailed Macaques and Bats in Peninsular Malaysia. Animals 2020, 10, 2367.
36) Dinç E. et al. (2020). Serological Investigation of West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection in Cats and Dogs. ARRB, 35(1): 65-71.
37) Selim A. et al. (2020). The first detection of anti-West Nile virus antibody in domestic ruminants in Egypt. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 52(6), 3147-3151.
38) Montagnaro S. et al. (2019). Serological evidence of mosquito-borne flaviviruses circulation in hunting dogs in Campania Region, Italy. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 19(2), 142-147.
39) Vitaskova E. et al. (2019). Serologic Survey of Selected Viral Pathogens in Free-Ranging Eurasian Brown Bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Slovakia. Journal of wildlife diseases, 55(2), 499-503.
40) Hassine, T.B. et al. (2017). Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, Blue Tongue, Epizootic Haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 84(1), a1316.
41) Pâslaru A. et al. (2016). West Nile Virus Serosurveillance in Wild Boars from the East of Romania. Bull. UASVM Vet. Med, 73, 144-148.
42) Lan D. et al.(2011). Serological evidence of West Nile virus in dogs and cats in China. Arch Virol 156:893-895.
43) Tinto B. et al. (2022). Screening of circulation of Usutu and West Nile Viruses: A one health approach in humans, domestic animals and mosquitoes in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Microorganisms, 10(10), 2016.
44) Constant O. et al. (2022). One Health surveillance of West Nile and Usutu viruses: A repeated cross-sectional study exploring seroprevalence and endemicity in Southern France, 2016 to 2020. Eurosurveillance, 27(25), 2200068.
45) Niczyporuk J.et al. (2015). Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland. BioMed Research International vol 2015, Article ID 234181.
46) Gothe L.M.R. et al. (2023). Horses as Sentinels for the Circulation of Flaviviruses in Eastern–Central Germany. Viruses 2023, 15, 1108.
47) Bergmann F. et al. (2022). Seroepidemiological Survey of West Nile Virus Infections in Horses from Berlin/Brandenburg and North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Viruses, 14(2), 243.
48) Ganzenberg S. et al. (2022). Seroprevalence and risk factors for equine West Nile Virus infections in eastern Germany, 2020. Viruses, 14(6), 1191.
49) Beck C. et al. (2017). Improved reliability of serological tools for the diagnosis of West Nile fever in horses within Europe. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(9): e0005936.
PANFLAVIVIRUS WNV/USUV/BAGAZA VIRUS
50) Jurisic L. et al. (2023). Immunization with Usutu virus and with a chimeric West Nile virus (WNV) harboring Usutu-E protein protects immunocompetent adult mice against lethal challenges with different WNV lineage 1 and 2 strains. Veterinary Microbiology, 277, 109636.
51) Folly A. J. et al. (2022). Evidence for overwintering and autochthonous transmission of Usutu virus to wild birds following its redetection in the United Kingdom. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 69:3684–3692.
52) Vasic A. et al. (2022). West Nile virus in the Republic of Serbia—Diagnostic performance of five serological tests in dog and horse sera. Transbound Emerg Dis. 1–10.
53) Napp S. et al. (2021). Widespread circulation of flaviviruses in horses and birds in Northeastern Spain (Catalonia) between 2010 and 2019. Viruses, 13(12), 2404.
54) Assaid N. et al. (2020). Evidence of circulation of West Nile virus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes and horses in Morocco. Acta Tropica 205, 105414.
55) Constant O. et al. (2020). Evidence of Exposure to USUV and WNV in Zoo Animals in France. Pathogens 9(12), 1005.
56) Llorente F. et al. (2019). Influence of flavivirus co‐circulation in serological diagnostics and surveillance: A model of study using West Nile, Usutu and Bagaza viruses. Transboundary and emerging diseases, 66(5), 2100-2106.
57) .Montagnaro S. et al. (2019). Serological evidence of mosquito-borne flaviviruses circulation in hunting dogs in Campania Region, Italy. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 19(2), 142-147.
58) Napp S. et al. (2019). Usefulness of Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) for West Nile virus Surveillance in Non-Endemic and Endemic Situations. Viruses 11, 716.
59) Lim S.M. et al. (2018). Serologic evidence of West Nile virus and Usutu virus infections in Eurasian Coots in the Netherlands. Zoonoses and public health, 65(1), 96-102.
TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS (TBEV)
60) Gonzalez G. et al. (2022). A One-Health Approach to Investigating an Outbreak of Alimentary Tick-Borne Encephalitis in a Non-endemic Area in France (Ain, Eastern France): A Longitudinal Serological Study in Livestock, Detection in Ticks, and the First Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolation and Molecular Characterisation. Frontiers in microbiology. 13, 863725-863725.
61).Bournez L. et al. (2020). Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009–2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago. Viruses 12(1), 10.
62) Beck C. et al. (2015). A High-Performance Multiplex Immunoassay for Serodiagnosis of Flavivirus-Associated Neurological Diseases in Horses. BioMed Research International Volume 2015, Article ID 678084.
63) Rushton J. et al. (2013). Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 19, No 4.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS (JEV)
64) Ruget A. S. et al. (2018). Japanese encephalitis circulation pattern in swine of northern Vietnam and consequences for swine’s vaccination recommendations. Transboundary and emerging diseases. 65(6), 1485-1492.
ZIKA AND DENGUE VIRUSES
65) Tinto B. et al. (2022). Serological Evidence of Zika Virus Circulation in Burkina Faso. Pathogens 11, 741.
66).Beck C. et al. (2019). Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007162.
67) Dolz G. et al. (2019). Detection of antibodies against flavivirus over time in wild non-human primates from the lowlands of Costa Rica. PLoS One, 14(7), e0219271.
68) Lin J. et al. (2015). Efficacy evaluation of an inactivated duck Tembusu virus vaccine. Avian diseases, 59(2), 244-248.